Droplet in cross-flow

We consider a n-dodecane droplet in n-dodecane vapor with a crossflow velocity of the free-stream of 20 m/s. The initial conditions are chosen at a pressure of 1bar and a temperature of 500K. The droplet is initialized at a higher pressure to trigger the onset of evaporation. We apply our methodology to resolve phase transition effects locally at the interface.

Based on the initial conditions we get the following non-dimensional numbers:

 Re_D = \frac{\rho v_\infty D}{\mu} \approx 23\,000 \\ We_D = \frac{\rho v_\infty^2 D}{\sigma} \approx 2

Snapshot of the initial temperature solution:

Snapshot of the velocity magnitude distribution:

Due to the resolution of phase transition effects at the droplet surface, the evaporated liquid has a lower temperature compared to the surrounding gas. The evaporated gas forms jet-like turbulent structures in the wake.